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パナマ運河の拡張と西海岸各港

投稿日: 2014 10月 10、3:28 午後


9月22-23日にロングビーチコンベンションセンターで開催されたIANA(INTERMODAL ASSOCIATION OF NORTH AMERICA) の会場でブースを出していたパナマ運河庁のARGELISさんに、パナマ運河拡張の現状を聞いた。彼女の話では工事は若干おくれているとはいえ、2015年後半の貫通を目指して急ピッチに進められているという。

この工事の概要は太平洋側とカリブ海側の入り口をそれぞれ水深を深くすることと幅をひろくすることが柱となっている。
主な工事場所は GATUN LOCKS , PEDRO MIGUEL LOCKS , MIRAFLORES LOCKS の三箇所である。

現在使用されているLOCKSでは 横幅33.5M, 水深12.8M, 長さ304.8Mで、最大4400TEUSのコンテナ船が通行可能となっている。

しかし世界のコンテナ船の趨勢は格段に大きくなり、現在は10000TEUSから14000TEUSが主流になりつつある。それに対応できるだけの拡張が必要となってきている。

現在進めているパナマ運河のニューロックは水深18.3M, 横幅55M, 長さ427Mとなり、
コンテナキャパシティーとしては13000-14000TEUSまで可能となっている。

THIRD SET OF LOCKSといわれる技術により、従来よりも少ない水で大型船の移動をスムーズに行えるという。来年2015年後半の完成をめざして着実に工事は進んでいくものと思われる。


現在、太平洋側の港では、東海岸むけの貨物はほとんどが鉄道を使って輸送されている。理由はオール・ウオーター・サービスのキャパシティーが4400TEUSと小さく、通行ができないこととトランジットタイムが一週間ほど余計に掛かることにある。

しかし、来年以降 パナマ運河が拡張されることで大型船が通過可能となると状況は変ってくる。現在ロサンゼルス、ロングビーチ両港とも、さらに大きなウルトラビッグシップといわれる18000TEUS型の船型の受け入れを前提に協議を進めているという。

また、鉄道会社もオール・ウオーターへのシフトを牽制しつつ、鉄道運賃も見直しを検討しているという。
同時に輸送キャパの増強も加速度を早めている。

現在18000TEUSを運行する会社はマースクライン一社であるが、このさき、続々と18000-19000の建造が予定されており、2016年から2017年に市場に投入される。

西海岸で下されるコンテナの40%強は鉄道輸送で中西部や東海岸に向うといわれる。
パナマ運河の拡張は、さらなる競争の幕開けを告げる。



ください。

カテゴリー: パナマ運河

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